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Was sind die gängigen medizinischen Sterilisationsmethoden??

2022-01-25

Sterilisation ist die Verwendung physikalischer oder chemischer Methoden zur Zerstörung aller Mikroorganismen, einschließlich einer großen Anzahl resistenter Bakteriensporen. Machen Sie es steril, um Infektionen und die Ausbreitung von Krankheiten während des Gebrauchs zu vermeiden.

Übliche medizinische Sterilisationsmethoden umfassen: Trockenhitzesterilisation, Sterilisation mit feuchter Hitze, Gassterilisation, radiation sterilization, filter sterilization, etc. The following is a brief introduction to these sterilization methods

Dry Heat Sterilization

Place the items in a dry heat sterilization cabinet (box), and use dry hot air to kill microorganisms or eliminate pyrogenic substances.

Scope of application: Glassware, metal utensils, and items that are resistant to high temperature but should not be sterilized by moist heat sterilization can all be sterilized by this method.

Dry heat sterilization conditions are generally (160-170)×120min or more, (170-180)×60min oder mehr oder 250℃×45min oder mehr.

Wenn Trockenhitzesterilisation verwendet wird, Die zu sterilisierenden Gegenstände sollten eine geeignete Beladungsmethode haben und nicht zu dicht angeordnet sein, um die Wirksamkeit und Gleichmäßigkeit der Sterilisation zu gewährleisten.

Der am häufigsten verwendete biologische Indikator für die Heißluftsterilisation sind Sporen von Bacillus subtilis.

 

Sterilisation mit feuchter Hitze

Ein Verfahren zum Abtöten von Mikroorganismen durch Einbringen der Gegenstände in einen Sterilisator (Topf), and using high-pressure saturated steam to denature the proteins and nucleic acids in the microbial cells. This method has strong sterilization ability and is the most effective and widely used sterilization method in thermal sterilization.

Scope of application: buffer solution, culture medium, clean clothes, glassware, infectious dirt and other items that will not change or be damaged when exposed to high temperature and high humidity.

Moist heat sterilization usually adopts 121℃×15min or 121℃×30min. During sterilization, the sterilized items should be loaded in an appropriate manner, and should not be arranged too densely to ensure the effectiveness and uniformity of sterilization.

The most commonly used biological indicator for moist heat sterilization is Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.

 

Gas Sterilization

Use the gas formed by chemical disinfectants to kill microorganisms. Gas sterilization can be subdivided into ozone sterilization and ethylene oxide sterilization.

 

1. Ozone Sterilization and Disinfection

Ozone has a strong sterilization and disinfection effect. The principle of sterilization and disinfection is: the molecular structure of ozone is unstable at normal temperature and pressure, and it quickly decomposes into oxygen and single oxygen molecules. The latter has strong activity and has a strong oxidizing effect on bacteria. An enzyme necessary for oxidizing glucose in bacteria, thereby destroying their cell membranes, killing it.

 

2. Ethylene Oxide Sterilization (ETO) Method

The ethylene oxide sterilization is a method of sterilizing with ethylene oxide gas. It is a traditional sterilization method that can be applied to sterilization of work clothes, medical instruments, facilities, and equipment that are not resistant to heat sterilization. The ethylene oxide sterilization system mainly has the following four important factors that mutually restrict the sterilization effect:

①humidity; ②temperature; ③gas concentration; ④sterilization time.

Ethylene oxide has very strong penetration and diffusion ability, and its sterilization mechanism is mainly strong oxidation, so it has the characteristics of broad-spectrum sterilization and strong sterilization ability, and has a strong killing effect on microbial propagules and spores. .

 

Radiation Sterilization

1. Ionizing Radiation

Sterilize with ionizing X-rays, gamma rays.

The lethal effect of ionizing radiation on microorganisms is mainly caused by changes in intracellular biochemistry.

Safety issues of irradiated medicines and foods: radiation sterilization for medicines or foods should undergo safety tests. It is absolutely necessary to conduct a scientific and comprehensive evaluation, and high doses of radiation should be used with caution.

2. Electromagnetic Wave Radiation

(including ultraviolet [wavelength 190~350nm], infrared [wavelength 0.77~1000μm], microwave [wavelength 1~1000mm]).

 

3. UV Sterilization

When ultraviolet rays irradiate microorganisms, energy transfer and accumulation occurs, and the accumulation results in the inactivation of microorganisms, thereby achieving the purpose of disinfection. When bacteria and viruses absorb a dose of more than 3600~65000uW/c㎡, it has a strong destructive power to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) of bacteria and viruses, which can make bacteria and viruses lose their viability and reproduction. Eliminate bacteria and viruses and achieve the effect of disinfection and sterilization.

 

Filter Sterilization

Physically remove microorganisms from the medium. Mikroorganismen und Verunreinigungen in Luft oder Flüssigkeit werden oft mit Membranfiltern aus verschiedenen Materialien gefiltert, um Sterilität zu erhalten, verunreinigungsfreie Luft oder Flüssigkeit.

Die Porengröße der Filtermembran zum Filtern von Viren ist 25 ~ 100nm; die Porengröße der Filtermembran zum Filtern von Bakterien ist 0.22 ~ 0,45 μm

Nach einem detaillierten Verständnis dieser fünf gängigen Sterilisationsmethoden, Zur besseren Unterscheidung haben wir eine Übersichtstabelle zusammengestellt

Die Arbeitsbedingungen, Anwendungsbereich und Grenzen verschiedener Sterilisationsverfahren.

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